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Amateka y'u Rwanda: Izindi Ngoma Zabaye mu Rwanda

Kera u Rwanda rutarashyika ku ntera y’uru Rwanda uko turuzi, rwarimo ibihugu byinshi bingana na za Superefegitura zahoze mu Rwanda, ni ukuvuga ko byari ibihugu byinshi ukongeraho inkomoko yarwo ariyo Gasabo; amateka akaba avuga ko byatangiye kumenyekana ahasaga mu w’1090 ubwo Gihanga I Ngomijana yahangaga ingoma Nyiginya i Gasabo. Imiterere y’ibihugu-nkiko by’u Rwanda rugari rwa Gasabo ni iyi ikurikira:

Ingoma y’Abenengwe

Ingoma-Ngabe yabo yitwaga Nyamibande. Bategekaga u Bungwe.U Bungwe cyari igihugu kibumbye u Busanza bw’amajyepfo (Komini Maraba, Mbazi, Ruhashya, Shyanda zo muri Perefegitura ya Butare, ubu akaba ari mu Karere ka Huye. U Bufundu (Komini Kinyamakara, Nyamagabe, Mudasomwa na Karama zo muri Perefegitura ya Gikongoro), ubu akaba ari mu Karere Ka Nyamagabe. Ingoma yabo yageraga n’I Nyaruguru(Komini Runyinya na Gishamvu zo muri Butare na Mubuga na Rwamiko zo muri Gikongoro), ubu ni mu Karere ka Nyaruguru. Yageraga kandi n’aho bitaga BAashumba-Nyakare (Komini Kigembe na Nyakizu byo muri Butare), ubu ni mu Karere ka Gisagara. N’intara y’u Buyenzi (komini Nshiri na Kivu zo muri Gikongoro ). Ubu naho ni mu Karere ka Nyamagabe.

Ikirangabwoko cyabo cyari Ingwe. Umwami wariho ubwo Ingoma Nyiginya y’I Gasabo yadukaga yitwaga Rwamba, akaba yari atuye muri Nyakizu ho mu Karere ka Gisagara. Undi Mwenengwe wategekaga igihugu cye kugeza gitsindwa n’ingoma Nyiginya ni Samukende, umugabo wa Nyagakecuru wo mu Bisi bya Huye. Abenengwe bwari ubwoko bw’Ibikomangoma by’i Ngozi mu Kayanza i Burundi byambukiranyije ingoma ya byo igasingira impugu za Butare na Gikongoro, zikikije ibisi bya Huye, n’ibisi bya Nyakibanda, byaje kwitwa Ibisi bya Nyagakecuru, biturutse ku Mugabekazi Banginzage nyina wa Rubuga umwami w’u Bungwe, bahimbye Nyagakecuru wari ufite umurwa we mu mpinga ya Nyakibanda. Izo mpugu Abenengwe bagengaga zaremaga ingoma bitaga ingoma z’abiyunze arizo:

  • U Busanza bwa bwa Nkuba ya Bagumana
  • U Bufundu bwa Rubuga rwa Kagogo
  • U Bungwe bwa Rubuga rwa Samukende

Ingoma yabo yaje kwigarurirwa na Mutara I Semugeshi(Muyenzi) nuko yica umwami waho Rubuga rwa Samukende, bica na nyina Benginzage ariwe “Nyagakecuru“, banyaga n’Ingabe yabo “Nyamibande”, basanze yararaye bayitera urwuma bakurizaho no kuyita “Rwuma”.

Ingoma y’Abarenge

Abarenge bari igitsina cy’Abahima bakomoka kuri Rurenge sekuruza w’Ingoma yabo. Nibo baba baradukanye amasuka n’inyundo. Bari bafite imitarimba bafukuzaga amariba y’inka zabo. Amariba maremare yo mu Rwanda rwo hambere nibo bayafukuye. Abarenge ubwoko bwabo bwari Abasinga, bikavuga Abatsinze, indangabwoko yabo ikaba Sakabaka. Abarenge bari biganje mu Rwanda rwagati, ariko cyane cyane Masaka ya Rugarika ho mu mu Rukoma muri Komini Runda (Akarere ka Kamonyi ). Runda niwo wari umurwa mukuru wabo.

Ingoma-Ngabe yabo yitwaga Mpatsibihugu. Bakunze kuvuga ko akarere bategekaga kari kanini cyane, kagizwe na Perefegitura ya Gisenyi na Kibuye(mu Turere twa Nyabihu, Rutsiro, Karongi, Rubavu na Ngororero), akarere ku Bunyambiriri (muri Komini Musebeya, Muko na Karambo byo ku Gikongoro). Mu Karere ka Nyamagabe.

Mu zindi ntara twavuga, izo muri Cyangugu arizo Biru (Komini Gafunzo na Cyimbogo )mu karere ka Nyamasheke,CYESHA (Komini kirambo )mu karere ka Karongi,BUSOZO (Komini Nyakabuye )na BUKUNZI (Komini Nyakabuye na Karengera )mu Karere ka Karongi na Nyamasheke.Mu majyaruguru ,hari BWITO,BYAHI ,na KARUMONGI muri KONGO.

Abarenge babarizwaga kandi mu BURWI (Komini Kigembe,Kibayi na Ndora yo muri Butare (mu Karere ka Gisagara).Mu gihe cy’umwaduko w’ingoma Nyiginya umwami w’Umurenge wari ku ngoma yari JENI RYA RURENGE.

Ingoma y’Abazigaba

Ingoma –Ngabe yabo yitwaga SERA.Abazigaba baje bturutse mu ntara z’ikiyaga cya Vigitoriya,bityo hakaba hari ahandi hatuye abaigaba benshi nk’I Karagwe muri Tanzaniya.

Umwami watwgekaga abazigaba mu mwaduko w’ingoma Nyiginya yari KABEJA, umwami wo mu RWEYA (Mubari: Komini Ngarama ).Ubu ni mu Karere ka Gatsibo.

Ingoma y’Abagesera

U Bugesera bwari igihugu cy’imigina n’ibishanga by’imifunzo n’ibiguhu biciyemo imigende n’ibinamba by’amasanzure y’Akanyaru n’Akagera.Agatsinda n’Ingabe y’u Bugesera yitwaga RUKOMBAMAZI, cyari igihugu kirimo ikiyaga cya Mugesera ari naho iryo zina ryakomotse.Naho imfizi y’I Bwami yitwaga RUSHYA .Kikaba cyaritwaga u Bugesera bw ‘Abahondogo .Igihugu cy’u Bugesera kigizwe na komini Kanzenze ,Ngenda na Gashora ho muri Kigali (ubu ni mu Karere ka Bugesera ).Igihugu cy’u Bugesera cyari gituwe n’Abahondogo ,umwami w’u Bugesera wategekaga kugeza butsinzwe n’umwami w’u Rwanda ni NSORO IV NYAMUGETA.Kubera ko intambara yo kwigarurira u Bugesera yashojwe na Mibambwe III Mutabazi II Sentabyo ,yabaye icyorezo cyane hagapfa Abahondogo benshi,Abahondogo nyabo basigaye mu Rwanda ni mbarwa.

Ingoma y’I Gisaka

I Gisaka cy’Abazirankende cyarimo impugu eshatu

-MIGONGO y’iburasirazuba (Komini Rukira na Rusumo ho muri

Kibungo ). Ubu Ni Mu Karere ka Kirehe.

-GIHUNYA rwagati (komini Kigarama ,Kabarondo na Birenga ho muri Kibungo) ubu ni mu Karere ka Kayonza

-MIRENGE y’ iburengerazuba (Komini Sake na Mugesera ho muri Kibungo ) .ubu ni mu Karere ka Ngoma I Gisaka cyarigengaga kikagira n’Ingabe yacyo RUKURURA.Umwami uzwi cyane mu mateka y’I Gisaka n’uwitwa RUGEYO ZIGAMA.Ariko amaze gutanga abahungu be Mushongore na Ntamwete basubiranyemo barwanira ingoma.Mushongore yitabaza umwami w’u Rwanda Mutara II Rwogera,Ntamwete Rwogera amucura inkumbi aramwica yigarurira atyo I Gisaka.

Ingoma y’Abacyaba

Ingoma-Ngabe y’Abacyaba yari RUGARA.Igihugu bategekaga cyitwaga RUGARA kikabumba ibihugu bikikije ibiyaga bya Burera na Ruhondo (Komini Ruhondo na Cyeru byo mu Ruhengeri ).Ubu ni mu Karere ka Burera.Kigashora muri Mukungwa na Base (muri Komini Kigombe,Nyakinama na Nyamutera ).Ubu ni mu Karere ka Musanze.Muri utwo turere harimo akagiye mu Gihugu cy’Ubugande. Umwami wabo wamamaye ni NZIRA YA MURAMIRA,umwami w’ u Rugara wahiritswe ku mayeri ya Ruganzu Ndori yigize “Cyambarantama “

Ingoma y’Uburiza

Ingoma y’Uburiza yategekwaga n’Ibikomangoma by’Abongera .Ingabe yabo yari BUSHIZIMBEHO.Igihugu bategekaga cyari kigizwe n’intara z’ U BUMBOGO (muri Komini Musasa,Rushashi na Tare ho muri Kigali ).Ubu ni mu Karere ka Gakenke.Cyari kigizwe na none n’UBURIZA nyirizina (muri Komini Rutongo ,Mugambazi na Shyorongi ho muri Kigali ).Ubu ni mu Karere ka Rurindo .Umwami w’Uburiza uzwi cyane ni MUGINA ,umurwa we ukaba wari Nyamitanga ho kuri Jari ,nyuma Uburiza bwaje kwigarurirwa na Kigeli Mukobanya amaze kwica Mugina umwami w’Uburiza.

Ingoma y’Ubwanacyambwe

Ingoma y’Ubwanacyambwe nayo yategekwaga n’Ibikomangoma by’Abongera kimwe n’iy’Uburiza .Ingabe yabo yari KAMUHAGAMA .Igihugu bategekaga cyari kigizwe n’intara z’ UBWANACYAMBWE nyirizina (muri Komini Nyarugenge,Rubungo na Kanombe ho muri Kigali ).Ubu ni mu Turere twa Nyarugemge,Gasabo na Kicukiro .Cyari kigizwe na none n’UBUGANZA (muri Komini Murambi ,Muhazi,Mukarange na ,Rutonde ho muri Kibungo na Bicumbi ho muri Kigali ).Ubu ni mu Turere ka Rwamagana,Kayonza na Gatsibo .Umwami w’Ubwanacyambwe uzwi cyane ni NKUBA YA NYABAKONJO, ,nyuma Ingoma y’Ubwanacyambwe nayo yaje kunyagwa na Kigeli Mukobanya, NKUBA YA NYABAKONJO umwami w’Ubwanacyambwe agahungira iBugufi amaze kuneshwa.Muri icyo gihe nibwo ingoma y’Abongera yazimye burundu.

Ingoma ya Nduga

Ubwami bwa Nduga bwari ubwa Ababanda ,niyo mpamvu bakundaga kuhita mu Nduga y’Ababanda.Ingoma –Ngabe yabo yari “NYABIHINDA “.Nduga y’Ababanda nacyo cyari igihugu kinini kandi gikomeye mu bihe byo hambere.Bakunda kuvuga ngo Nduga ngari ya Gisari na Kibanda.Gisari ni muri Komini Ntongwe (Akarere ka Ruhango ) naho Kibanda ni muri Komini Mushubati (Akarere ka Ngororero ),kubera ko yageraga muri izo mpugu zose.Nduga ngari yari ibumbye Perefegitura ya GITARAMA yose uko yakabaye(Muhanga,Kamonyi,Ruhango) ukongeraho Komini Nyabisindu,Shyanda ,Ntyazo na Muyira ho muri Butare( mu Karere ka Nyanza n’ agace gato ka Huye ). Ababanda bigeze no kwambuka Nyabarongo ku buryo inka zabo bazuhiraga hano mu Muhima wa Kigali.Ababanda wasangaga bari mu gipande gihurutuye kuva mu Rwankeri (Akarere ka Nyabihu ) kikagera muri Gitarama unyuze mu Buhoma,mu Bushiru,mu Bukonya, mu Kingogo no mu Ndiza.Ababanda bari bagize kimwe cya gatatu cy’abatuye ako gace.

Umwami wa Nduga y’Ababanda uzwi cyane ni MASHIRA WA NKUBA YA SABUGABO.Akaba yarivuganywe na Sebukwe Mibambwe I Mutabazi I Sekarongoro umwami w’ I Rwanda rwa Gasabo.Mashira amaze gupfa ,bamushyize mu mandwa,akabandwa n’Abantu bari baize icyo gihugu,buretse nyine “Imfura “.Aha bikaba bigaragara ko yari umuntu ukomeye cyane.Ababanda bari batunze inka nyinshi,umwe mu bamamaye muri ubwo butunzi ni SENTETERI wari utuye ahahoze ari komini Muyira (Ubu ni mu Karere ka Nyanza )ku buryo bazitaga “URUKUBAZUBA”.

Ingoma ya Bukunzi

Ubwami bwa Bukunzi bwari buherereye muri Perefegitura ya CYANGUGU muri Komini ya Karengera na Nyakabuye (mu Karere ka Nyamasheke ).Ingoma ya Bukunzi yigaruriwe na Kigeli III Ndabarasa ariko ntiyahatwara burundu ,ahubwo abaha ubwigenge bucagase,nu ukuvuga ko bakomeje kugengwa n’umwami wabo ,ariko igice kimwe cy’amakoro y’ I Bwami kikakjya I Rwanda bakomeza kujya bamusororera.Abami b’icyo gihugu bari abavubyi bakavubira imvura u Bukunzi n’ u Rwanda.Abami bakurikiye Ndabarasa nabo ntibagira icyo babikoraho babirekera uko .Abadage bageze mu Rwanda byarabatangaje,bituma baguyaguya umwami w’u Bukunzi NDAGANO RUHAGATA ngo yegukire umwami w’ u Rwanda burundu agerageze kum,ugandukira, ariko biranga,kugeza naho boherejeyo abasirikaree birananirana kugeza igihe apfiriye urw’ikirago mu w’1923.Ababirigi nabo basanze aruko bimeze,bo bahisemo kohereza igitero cy’abasirikare mu w’1924 na 1925.

NGOGA BIHIGIMONDO, Umwami wa nyuma wa Bukunzi bamushyize muri gereza kuva mu w’1923 kugeza mu w’1925.Muri uwo mwaka nibwo yaguye mu buroko,maze Ababiligi begurira u Bukunzi Abami b’u Rwanda.Nibwo bahagabira uwitwa RWAGATARAKA aba Umutware waho.Ingoma ya Bukunzi izima ityo.

Ingoma ya Busozo

Igihugu cya Busozo nacyo cyari muri Perefegitura ya cyangugu muri Komini Nyakabuye (Agace gato ko mu Karere ka Nyamasheke ).Nabwo bigaruriwe na Kigeri III Ndabarasa nabo abaha ubwigenge bucagase nk’uko yabigenja mu bwami bwa Bukunzi.Icyo gihugu nacyo cyari icy’Abavubyi,umwami uherutse w’u Busozo ni RUHINGA II.Yazunguye se NYUNDO watanze mu w’1904. U Busozo nabwo bwaje kwigarurirwa N’Ababiligi bakoresheje imbaraga za gisirikare mu bitero bagabye bikurikiranye n’ibya Bukunzi ,ni ukuvuga mu w’1925 kugeza mu w’1926.Ubwo RUHINGA ntibamwica kuko yitanze mu maboko yabo ,ahubwo bamucira ahandi,ubwami bwa Busozo nabwo babugabira Rwagataraka ngo abe umutware waho.Nguko uko ubwami bwa Busozo bwazimye burundu.

Ingoma y’u Bushiru

Ubwami bw’ u Bushiru bwategekwaga n’Abami b’Abagesera,ingoma-ngabe yabo yari NKUNDABASHIRU.Aho bari batuye habarizwa muri komini Karago (Mu Karere ka Nyabihu ).Ubundi amateka akaba agaragaza ko inkomoko yabo ari iyo mu Bagesera b’Abazirakende bo mu Gisaka.

Igihugu cy’u Bushiru cyari igihugu gikaze cyane nubwo cyari gito cyarangwga n’imirwano ikaze y’ibihe byose .Umwami w’ u Rwanda wahigaruriye ni YUHI IV GAHINDIRO.Ariko ntiyahashyira urugo na rumwe ,n’abo yohereje kumuhagararira nabo ntawigeze ahatura kuko bahatinyaga cyane kubera ubugome bwabo buvanze n’uburozi bukaze . U Rwanda rumaze kwadukwamo n’Abazungu, mu mwaka w’1924, Ababiligi niho bategetse Nyangezi kujya kubatwarira u Bushiru we na Musinga babwomekaho Ubwanamwari.Ingoma y’ u Bushiru izima ityo.Dore bamwe mu Bami b’ u Bushiru n’Abami b’ Rwanda bategekeye igihe kimwe.

U BUSHIRU U RWANDA UMWAKA Gasiga –Ngwabije Cyirima II Rujugira 1740 Nyamakwa I Mudende Kigeli III Ndabarasa 1753 Nyamwanga-Ngumije Mibambwe III Sentabyo 1780 Sangano –Burondwe Yuhi IV Gahindiro 1785 Kibogora-Shyiramberte Mutara II Rwogera 1835 Nyamakwa II Nditunze Kigeli IV Rwabugili 1860 Nyamakwa II Nditunze (yatanze mu w’1938 ) Mibambwe Rutarindwa 1896 Kidahiro Yuhi V Musinga 1897 Kidahiro (yatanze mu w’1954) Mutara III Rudahigwa 1931

Abami b’u Bushiru kimwe n’abandi bami bo mu mujyaruyuru bagengwaga n’umuco w’ubukonde, mu gihe abandi bami (bo mu majyepfo n’iburasirazuba) bagengwaga n’umuco w’ibikingingi n’inka.

Ingoma ya Kingogo

Abami b’icyo gihugu ni Abazigaba.Ingoma –ngabe yabo ikitwa SIMUGOMWA.Babarizwaga muri komini Satinsyi na Gaseke ho muri Gisenyi (ubu ni mu Karere ka Nyabihu)Umurwa mukuru wabo wari I Hindiro na Kabuye muri Satinsyi.Amateka y u Rwanda ntagaragaza neza abami bazwi ku ngoma y’Abanyakingogo.

Ingoma ya Bugamba-Kigamba

Abami b’icyo gihugu ni Abagesera.Ingoma –ngabe yabo ikitwa KAYENZI, nyuma yaho yaje kuba IRAVUMERA kubwa NKWAKUZI I RUVUGAMAKE ari nawe mwami w’ikirangirire uzwi cyane mu mateka y’ubwami bwa Bugamba.Babarizwaga muri Komini Kibirira ho muri Gisenyi (ubu ni mu Karere ka Nyabihu).

Ingoma y’u Bwanamwari

Abami b’icyo gihugu ni Ababanda.Nta ngoma –ngabe yabo izwi kugeza ubu.Babarizwaga muri Komini Giciye ho muri Gisenyi (ubu ni mu Karere ka Nyabihu).Amateka akaba atagaragaza neza Abami bategetse icyo gihugu.

Ingoma y’u Buhoma

Abami b’icyo gihugu ni Ababanda.Nta ngoma –ngabe yabo izwi kugeza ubu.Babarizwaga muri Komini Nyamutera ho mu Ruhengeri (ubu ni mu Karere ka Gakenke).Amateka akaba atagaragaza neza Abami bategetse icyo gihugu.

Ingoma y’u Bukonya

Abami b’icyo gihugu ni Ababanda.Ingoma –ngabe zabo zari RUBUGA na RUVUGAMAHAME.Babarizwaga muri Komini Gatonde ho mu Ruhengeri (ubu ni mu Karere ka Gakenke)ari naho hari umurwa mukuru wabo.Amateka akaba atagaragaza neza Abami bategetse icyo gihugu.

Ingoma ya Kibari

Abami b’icyo gihugu ni Abega.Nta ngoma –ngabe yabo izwi kugeza ubu.Babarizwaga muri Komini Nyarutovu ho mu Ruhengeri (ubu ni mu Karere ka Gakenke) umurwa mukuru wabo wari I Gihinga cya Nyarutovu.Amateka akaba atagaragaza neza Abami bategetse icyo gihugu.

Ingoma ya Rwankeri y’Abarindi

Abami b’icyo gihugu ni Ababanda.Ingoma –ngabe yabo yitwaga KABUCE.Babarizwaga muri Komini Nkuri ho mu Ruhengeri (ubu ni mu Karere ka Musanze).Amateka akaba atagaragaza neza Abami bategetse icyo gihugu.

Ingoma ya Rwankeri y’Abaguyane

Abami b’icyo gihugu ni Ababanda.Ingoma –ngabe yabo yitwaga NDAHAZE.Babarizwaga muri Komini Kigombe na Kinigi ho mu Ruhengeri (ubu ni mu Karere ka Musanze).Amateka akaba atagaragaza neza Abami bategetse icyo gihugu.

Ingoma y’ i Ndorwa

Igihugu cyo mu Ndorwa cyari icy ‘Abashambo bakomokaga kuri Mushambo wa Kanyandorwa I Sabugabo.Ingoma –ngabe yabo yitwaga MURORWA.Babarizwaga muuri Komini Giti,Rutare,Muhura,Muvumba ho muri Byumba.Ni ukuvuga ayo makomini n’uduce tw’Umutara twose turi mu majyaruguru y’ u Rwanda kugeza ku mupaka warwo n’igihugu cy’ Ubugande.(ubu ni mu Turere twa Gatsibo na Nyagatare ) Babarizawaga nanone muri Komini Kivuye ,Cyumba ,Cyungo ho muri Byumba (Ubu ni mu Karere ka Gicumbi).Umwami uzwi cyane mu mateka y’ubwami bwa Ndorwa ni MUSHAMBO GAHAYA I MUZORA.Akaba ari nawe waguye ku rugamba ubwo umwami Cyirima II Rujugira yoherezaga umuhungu we w’Igikomangoma Ndabarasa gutera Ndorwa .Ndabarasa ntiyatindiganyije aba acuze inkumbi Mushambo Gahaya umwami w’ I Ndorwa.Icyo gihe bigarurira ingabe yabo Murorwa.Ubwami bwa Ndorwa butangira kuyoboka u Rwanda n’impugu zayo zirimo Mpororo (ho mu Bugande), Umutara n’Umubari,Abashambo baho baba isanga n’ingoyi n’Abanyiginya b’I Gasabo.Ingoma Ndorwa izima ityo.

Ibyo akaba aribyo bihugu byari bigize u Rwanda rwo ha mbere rutaratangira kwigarurirwa n’ingoma Nyiginya yari ifite ikicaro mu Rwanda rugari rwa Gasabo.

Hifashishijwe

  • Un abrege de l’Ethino- Histoire du Rwanda,Butare 1972 (KAGAME Alexis)
  • Inganji Kalinga I, Kabgayi 1943(KAGAME Alexis)
  • Amateka y’Afurika, Kigali 1987(MUREKUMBANZE Gr.)
  • Le Rwanda ancien et modern,Kabgayi 1959 (LOUIS de Lacger)
  • Le Bushiru et son Muhinza (M.Pauwels)
  • Ingoma I Rwanda(P.SIMPENZWE Gaspard)
Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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