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Ikoranabuhanga:Amafile afite format y’amajwi.

amajwi
Amafile afite format y’amajwi.

Buri jwi rigira iforume igaragaza frequence, amplitude ndetse n’ibijyanye na harmonie byaryo. Iyi forume ni yo yitwa « waveforme » ikaba ariyo ibikwa muri mudasobwa hifashishijwe ubuhanga bwa digitalisation. Iyo ukilitse kuri file y’amajwi, ushobora kumva bya bindi byigeze kubikwa bivanywa muri waveform bigirwa digital. Iyo ni yo mpamvu babyita « play back » (kukugarukira).

-WAV
Iyi ni format y’amajwi ikorera kuri mudasobwa zikoresha Windows (iyi ikaba ari ubwoko bwa operating system bukoreshwa kuri mudasobwa za Microsoft). Ikaba ifite umugereka ugaragara ku izina rya file ibitsemo wa .wav Dufashe nk’urugero rw’indirimbo yitwa “Ese Urambona” iri muri format ya WAV twayandika gutya: “ese urambona.wav”. Umuziki ni bimwe mu bikurura abantu kuri internetKera iyi format igisohoka ntabwo yabashaga gusomwa ku ma browser yo kuri internet hatifashishijwe indi program yabugenewe. Ku bw’amahirwe ubu iki kibazo ntigikunze kuboneka kuko ama browser (Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Safari,..) menshi ayifasha. No kuri Macinitosh( iyi ikaba ari ubwoko bwa operating system bukoreshwa kuri mudasobwa za Apple) naho birasomeka nta kibazo.

-AU na SND
Izi format uko ari ibyiri zikunze gukoreshwa kuri internet urebye zenda gukora kimwe uretse ko amafile afite .au (umugereka) atabasha kuba yahindurwa cyangwa kugabanywa ubunini uko ushatse nk’uko bigaragara kuri file za .snd

-RA na RAM
Ku maradio akorera kuri internet aba asakaza amajwi mu buryo bw’ako kanya (nta gutegereza download) agahita agera ku bayateze amatwi ni yo akunze gukoresha ubu bwoko bwa format. RA na RAM, bifite imigereka .ra na .ram, ni impine y’amagambo RealAudio metafile. Aho izi file zitandukaniye n’izindi z’amajwi ni uko izi file za .ra na .ram ziba zigizwe n’amagambo aho kuba amajwi. Ayo magambo aba yifitemo aderesi ya internet (URL) igaragaza aho iyo file y’amajwi iherereye kuri server. Kugirango rero ibi byihute bisaba porugaramu yo kuzisoma yabigenewe ndetse na server kabuhariwe mu gukora aka kazi.

-MP3
MP3 ni format ikunzwe kuri internet ndetse n’ahandi mu bikoresho bisoma umuziki cyangwa amajwi muri rusange. Ibi bituma akenshi iri zina MP3 rikoreshwa hashaka kuvugwa igikoresho cy’umuziki gisoma amafile afite iyo format ya MP3. Nk’uko bigenda no kuzindi format, umugereka ugaragaza MP3 urangwa n’akadomo kabanzirijwe n’izina rya file kagakurikirwa n’izina rya format. MP3 rero bikaba bishatse kuvuga “MPEG* audio layer 3.” Ubu bwoko bwa file bukaba bukoresha system ya MPEG audio codec ifite akazi ko kugabanya cyangwa gutubura ubunini bwa file y’ umuziki (cyangwa se amajwi). MP3 rero ikaba ishobora kugabanya ubunini bw’indirimbo iri kuri CD isanzwe ikabugeza ku 10% ry’ubunini bwari busanzwe. Byongeye indirimbo ishobora gukoreshwa kuri internet ku buryo bwihuse kandi hatigeze hagabanywa umwimerere w’iyo ndirimo.

*MPEG ni impine ya Motion Picture Experts Group. Iyi ikaba ari umuryango mpuzamahanga watangije uburyo bwo kugabanya no kugabanura (compression/decompression) ubunini bwa file cyane cyane iza videwo.

-MIDI
Ku bacuranga ibyuma électronique bya muzika cyangwa abakora muri studio z’umuziki basanzwe bamenyereye ubu bwoko bw’iyi format. Iyi format ni impine z’amagambo « Musical Instrument Digital Interface » . Amafile afite iyi format akaba yoroha guhererekanywa kuri internet. Ikiranga ubu bwoko bw’amafile ni uko izi file ziba zidafite amajwi ashobora twe twakumva nk’uko tubibona kuri .wav. Ahubwo izi file ziba zifitemo amabwiriza asobanura imiterere y’ijwi n’uburyo bwo kurisoma. Nk’urugero, amabwiriza agaragaza ijwi rivuga cyane cyangwa se gahoro, ijwi riri gutangwa na gitari, inanga cyangwa se umunwa w’umuntu, amajwi yihuta cyangwa agenda gahoro n’ibindi. Ibyo rera bibasha gusomwa n’amaporugaramu yagenewe gusoma ayo mabwiriza kugirango iyabyazemo ijwi twe tubasha kumva. Umugereka ujya ku izina rya file ifite format ya MIDI ni .mid.

via:isokoyacu.com

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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