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Ikoranabuhanga:Amafile afite format y’amashusho

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Hari amaformat y’amashusho akunze gukoreshwa mu bijyanye na mudasobwa arenga mirongo itatu. Nyamara kuri internet, ubwoko bw’amaformat akunze kugaragara kandi buri wese yakwiringira ko browser ye ibasha kwakira ni GIF, JPEG na PNG.

-GIF: ni impine ya Graphics Interchange Format. Ubu bwoko bwa format, burangwa n’umugereka wa .gif, buzwiho gukundwa kuri internet cyane kurusha JPEG. Imwe mu mpamvu bukundwa ni uko iyo habayeho kugabanywa kw’ubunini by’ifoto mu bijyanye n’ububiko ndetse n’ingano (compression) ntabwo ubwiza bw’ifoto bwononekara nk’uko tubisanga mu yandi maformat y’amafoto. Ni ukuvuga ko ifoto yagizwe nto (compressed) iba ifite ubwiza nk’ubwifoto ya mbere (orginal). Ikindi kizwi ku mafoto ari muri format ya GIF ni uko ashobora kugaragaza ibintu binyeganyega (animation). Iyo shusho iri hejuru ya Eadweard J. Muybridge y' ifarashi yirukanka iragaragaza neza uburyo GIF ishobora gukoreshwa ku mashusho anyeganyega.
Nyamara amafoto ari muri format ya GIF afite icyo abura dusangana ubundi bwoko bwa format kuko iyo GIF ishobora kwakira umubare w’amabara atarenga 256. Ni yo mpamvu iyo hakenewe amafoto akenera amabara menshi hifashishwa izindi format.

-PNG : ni impine ya Portable Network Graphics. PNG isomwa nka «ping ». Igira umugereka uhera wa .png. Iyi yakozwe hagamijwe kugera ku byo GIF itabasha ; harimo nko kwakira umubare w’amabara munini kurushaho. Icyo irushwa na GIF rero ni ukubikwamo amashusho anyeganyega. Naho icyo irusha JPEG ni uko amafoto yayo adatakaza ubwiza iyo habayeho igabanywa ry’ubunini bwayo (compression). Ikindi iyi format yavugwaho ni uko yakozwe igamije gukoreshwa ku mafoto akoreshwa kuri intenet aho kuba ayo ku mpapuro.

-JPEG : ni impine ya Joint Photographic Experts Group aribyo byaturutse ku izina rya kompanyi yayihimbye. JPEG isomwa nka « jay peg».Ubu bwoko bw’amaformat y’amashusho burangwa n’umugereka uhera wa .jpg cyangwa .jpeg Iyi format ikundirwa ubushobozi bwayo bwo gushobokana n’amabara menshi ; arenga miliyoni. Nyamara iyi format ibura ubushobozi nk’ubwa GIF bwo kuba idatakaza ubwiza bw’ifoto bitewe n’ubugabanywe bwayo (compression). Ikindi iyi format izwiho ni uko ikunze gukoreshwa mu kubika amafoto kuri za pareyi dijitali (digital camera).

Ubu noneho ubwo tumaze kureba ibisobanuro ku biranga amaformat y’amafoto, ushobora kujya ukoresha amafoto afite izo format uzi aho atandukaniye. Ibi ukajya ubibwirwa no kureba ibyanditse ku izina rya file (iyo foto nyine iri kuri mudasobwa). Reka dufate ingero nkeya kugirango zidufashe kumvikanisha ibintu neza. Tuvuge ko hari ifoto twise “ururabo”. Izina ryayo ryuzuye ni “ururabo.jpeg” bishatse kuvuga ko iyo file (ifoto) ibitse muri format ya JPEG. Birashoboka kandi ko iyo foto ihindurwa mu zindi format. Aho ni hahandi tuzaba dufite nk’ “ururabo.gif” cyangwa se “ururabo.png” bitewe n’ubwoko bwa format iyo foto yashyizwemo.

via isokoyacu.com

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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