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Ikoranabuhanga:Amafile afite format y’inyandiko



-Plaintext : iyi format iba ifite umugereka uhera (extension) wa .txt
Nk’urugero, nuramuka ubonye nka file kuri flash dish yawe yitwa "gukwirakwiza amazi meza.txt", "amashuri.txt", "ubwiyunge.txt",… ni ngombwa kumenya kwisobanurira icyo iyo migereka isobanura. Tugendeye kuri urwo rugero izo file, gukwirakwiza amazi meza cyangwa amashuri cyangwa se ubwiyunge, biri muri format ya plaintext,ariyo agaragazwa nyine n’uriya mugerekwa wa .txt (icyitonderwa : ako kadomo ni ngombwa kugashyiraho). Ayo mafile kandi azwi ku izina rya ASCII files.
Buri format ifile yanditsemo iba ifite indi program yabugenewe kugirango ibashe gufungurwa maze isomwe. Amafile ya plaintext akenshi asomwa kuri internet nta ngorane hakoreshejwe browser zitandukanye nka Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer… kuko ziba zibitsemo program zabugenewe mu kuyasoma.

-Hypertext : iyi ni format ishyirwamo amafile afite ubushobozi bwo gukilikwaho kugirango ugere ku yindi page runaka iriho ubundi butumwa. Urwo ni urugero rw’amafiles ya HTML afite umugereka wa .html cyangwa se .htm. HTML ni format ikoreshwa cyane kuri internet (WWW) mu kwandika amapaji ariho ubutumwa amawebsite agaragariza abayagana. Nyamara izo file zo muri HTML zifite ubwoko bw’amacode akoreshwa kugirango zibashe gushyirwa mu rurimi twe abantu dusobanukirwa hakoreshejwee za browser (internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox,..). Izo code bita « markup » nizo zituma ijambo cyagwa ishusho iri niri kuri website rishobora gukilikwaho (to click) noneho ukagera ku yindi paji runaka iriho ibindi bintu.

-Amafile ya word processor : uru ni urugero rwa Microsoft Word tumenyereye. Iyi ni program iha format amafile kugirango abikike, ikaba ari nayo ibasha kuyafungura kugirango tubashe kuyasoma. Iyi format ishyirwamo amafile hakurikijwe code zabugenewe zigaragaza imiterere itandukanye y’inyandiko. Bityo iyo ufite iyo file iri muri format ya Microsoft Word bisaba gukoresha Microsoft Word kugirango ibashe gutahura igisobanuro cya ya macode. Icyo gihe ni hahandi usanga inyuguti zishobora gucibwaho umurongo (underline), zifite ingano runaka, zifite amabara atandukanye, zitondetse mu buryo bw’ibika butandukanye, n’indi mimerere itandukanye. Ni ukuvuga ko iyo ufite nka file kuri flash disk yawe bisaba ko ubona mudasobwa iriho program ya Microsoft Word ( a processor) kugirango ubashe kuyasoma. Umugereka uhera uranga ifile ya Microsoft Word ni .doc cyangwa .docx . Akenshi za browser ntabwo ziba zifitemo program zo gusoma mbene izi file nkuko twabibonye kuri file ziri muri format nka .html cyangwa se nka .txt. Niyo mpamvu bisaba gukura iyo file kuri internet uyijyana kuri mudasobwa yawe (download) kugirango ubashe kuyifungura ukoresheje Microsoft Word iri kuri iyo mudasobwa.

-File ya Portable Document Format (PDF) :ubu ni ubwoko bwa file dukunze kububona kenshi. Ariko wenda dushobora kuba tutazi byinshi kuri bwo. Ubu bwoko bwa format bufite umugereka uhera wa .pdf bwatangijwe na Adobe, company ikora ibigendanye n’ikoranabuhanga, hagamijwe gutuma ibintu byanditse ku mpapuro (nk’amapaji y’ibitabo) bishobora gushyirwa kuri mudasobwa kugirango bisomerweho. Bumwe mu buryo ushobora gukora ifile ya PDF ni nko gufata nka bulletin y’ishuri, ni urugero, ukayishyira kuri scanner (wayisanga ahantu henshi muri za internet café) noneho ukabasha kuyitunga mu bu biko bwa mudasobwa . Kugirango ubashe gusoma file iri muri format ya PDF ukoresha program ya Adobe yitwa Adobe Acrobat Reader. Ni program y’ubuntu ushobora gukura (download) kuri website ya Adobe ariyo adobe.com. Igitangaje rero kuri iyi file ni uko ushobora kwibwira ko ari nk’ifoto itatuma ugira icyo uhinduraho ngo kuko biba byavuye muri scanner mu iforme y'ifoto. Nyamara sibyo kuko PDF ikoranye ubuhanga butuma ibasha kumenya ibyanditseho ko ari inyuguti bityo ukaba washobora guhinduraho ibyo ukeneye (edit) aribyo nka copy, paste, cut,… Ikindi kizagushimisha ni uko iyo ubishyize ku rupapuro ubikura kuri mudasobwa ( to print) biba bigaragara neza ku buryo rimwe na rimwe biba bisa neza kurusha inyandiko ya mbere (the original copy) !

via isokoyacu.com

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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