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Intabwe 10 Zo Gutangiza Business

Iyo ubajije abana b'iki gihe ibirebana n'icyo bazakora mu bijyanye n' akazi kabo, benshi bahuriza mu kuvuga ko bazashinga business zabo. Si abo bana gusa ahubwo n'abantu bakuru biyumvamo igitekerezo cyiza, cyabageza kuri business; bumva ntacyo bakora kitari kwikorera ku giti cyabo. Nyamara kugira igitekerezo cyangwa se inzozi zo kwibera boss ntabwo bihagije ngo umuntu agere kuri business yifuza; hari byinshi bisabwa.

Gutangiza business iyo ari yo yose bisaba kwitegura iyo nyir'ukuyitangiza ashaka kugera ku mutsindo (success) yiyemeje. Mu byo umuntu akora yitegura rero harimo ibijyanye no gukora imipango y'imikorere ye no kumenya ibijyanye n'amategeko agenga business mu gace arimo. Duhereye ko umaze kumenya business ushaka gutangiza iyo ari yo, ikiba gitahiwe ni ugukurikiza ibi bikurikira:

  • Kora imipango y'umutamenwa business yawe izagenderaho

    Imipango ya business (business plan) ikorwa mu buryo bw'inyandiko. Ni inyandiko igufasha gusobanura intego yawe ndetse n'uburyo uzayigeraho. Ni igice cy'ingenzi gituma business iganda nk'uko yateganyijwe, nta byo gutungurwa. Niba iki gice ugisimbutse, uba uri umwiyahuzi kuko ushobora gushiduka wagiye aho abandi bose bakoze business zikabahombera bagiye. Dore rero ibyo ushobora gushyiramo:

    Business

    SOBANURA. Usobanura icyo business yawe ari cyo ndetse n'icyo igamije. Byandike mu buryo bwumvikana nk'aho uri kwandika ibintu umuntu utazi business yawe azasoma. Ibi bizatuma ubasha nawe kumva neza iyo uri kugana ndetse no kumenya ibyo ufite n'ibyo ukeneye kugirango utangire.

    MARKETING. Uburyo uzakoresha ngo umenyekanishe business yawe (marketing strategy). Si ngombwa kwibwira ko uzakoresha itangaza-makuru ryamaza kugirango umenyekanishe business yawe. Niba ufite ubwo bushobozi nta kibazo, ariko niba utabufite, ntwiwihebe kuko uburyo ari bwinshi. Ushobora kwifashisha abantu b'inshuti bakagufasha kumenyekanisha ibyo ukora, urwo ni urugero. Muri iki gihe kandi, ntuzibagirwe ko internet yagufasha muri marketing yawe.

    BA MUKEBA. Teganya uburyo uzahangana n'abandi bantu ku bijyanye no kwigwizaho abakiliya. Niba uri umuntu utangije business isanzwe ikorwa n'abandi bantu, reba uburyo uzakoresha kugirango abakiliya baze iwawe. Niba uri umuntu utangije business nshya mu gace ushaka gukoreramo, ni ngombwa no guteganya ko hari abashobora kukwigana bagamije kugucura abakiliya. Ibi byigire umutwe, maze abo bandi uzabarushe kugira abakiliya. Mu byo ugomba gukora byose uzirindi ibintu by'ubugome (unethical) wagirira ba mukeba wawe. Barushye ubwenge aho gushaka kubarwanya.

    IMIKORERE. Aha ugomba gusobanura uburyo uzajya ukora. Ese uzajya ukora ayahe masaha/ iyihe minsi? Ese uzajya ukora ufite ibihe bikoresho? Aha ni ho ugumba gusobanura uburyo uteganya gukora. Ibi byose ugomba kubyandika neza, ubisobanura nk'aho uri kubisobanurira undi muntu udafite icyo azi mu ikorwa rya business.

    ABAKOZI. Ugomba guteganya uko uzajya ufata n'uburyo uzajya ushakisha abakozi bazajya bagukorera. Ni hano ugomba kugena umubare w'abazajya bagukorera. Aha kandi ni na ho ugena uburyo uzajya ubahemba. Ese uzajya ubahemba uko bakoze ikintu runaka? Cyangwa uzajya ubuhemba ukurikije igihe bamaze bakora ikintu runaka? Niba uteganya kwikorera (nta wundi muntu mufatanyije), iki gice ntabwo ugomba kugisimbuka. Sobanura uburyo uzajya witwara ndetse n'amasaho uzajya ukora.

    UBWISHINGIZI. Nta wamenya burya; hari igihe ibyago bikugwira utabiteganyije. Niba rero ushaka kwirinda izi ngorane, ni ngombwa ko ugira ubwishingane (assurance). Gena icyo uteganya kuzakora kugirango ugire ubwishingane bugukwiye.

    Ibijyanye n'imari

    Ibaze kandi unasubize ahazajya hava amafaranga yo gukoresha. Ushobora kandi no guteganya uko uzajya uzabona inguzanyo ndetse n'uburyo uzayishyura. Ushobora kandi no guteganya uburyo uzaka inkunga. Ibi byose ubikora wamaze kumenya amafaranga uzakenera mu gutangiza business ndetse n'uko uzajya uyicunga.

    Ugomba kandi no guteganya ibyo uzakenera byose ngo business yawe ishyirwe mu bikorwa. Ibi birimo amafaranga uzatangirana ndetse n'ayo uzaba ufite mu minsi ya mbere yo kwishyura ibisabwa bitandukanye. Inama nziza wakwigira ni iyo guteganya nibura amafaranga uzakenera mu mezi atandatu ya mbere uzamara ukora. Ibi ubikora wibwira ko muri icyo gihe nta nyungu uzajya ubona. Iyo ugize amahirwe ukayibona, ibyo nta kibazo. Iyo rero ugize ibyago ntuyibone kandi nta n'amafaranga wateganyije kuzaba ukoresha, kaba kakubayeho.

    Ugomba kandi no kugena ibirebana n'inyungu ndetse n'igihombo. Nubwo nta muntu ushaka kwibutswa ko ashobora guhomba, ni ngombwa guteganya ko bishobora kubaho. Sobanura rero uburyo uzabyitwaramo uramutse uhombye ndetse unasobanure uburyo wakoresha ngo ubyirinde ahubwo urengere kunguka.

  • Shaka uburyo wabona amahugurwa cyangwa se ubufasha mu byo upanga

    Aha ni hahandi utekereza ku bijyanye n'icyagufasha kugera ku nzozi ushaka ko business yawe isohoza. Niba utazi bihagije uburyo bwo gukora business, ni ngombwa kwegera abakoze business bakakugira inama. Ari ababashije kugera ku mitsindo, ari abatarayigezeho; bose bakugira inama. Ushobora kandi kwifashisha ibitabo, magazine ndetse na website zizewe kugirango umenyereho amakuru ajyanye na business ushaka gutangiza.

  • Hitamo aho uzayishyira witonze

    Aho uzashyira business yawe biterwa ahanini n'ubwoko bwa business yawe. Aho uzayishyira rero ni ikintu cy'ingenzi cyane mu kwigwaho. Ikintu kiruta ibindi hano ni ukubanza kugenzura ko aho ushaka gushyira business yawe hari abantu cyangwa hazajya hagera ku buryo bworoshye abazajya baguha icyashara.

    Niba rero abakiliya uteganya kungukiraho ari abagenzi b'amaguru ugomba gushyira business yawe aho abantu baca. Nuyishyira ahantu hanyurwa n'imodoka gusa (cyangwa n'inyamaswa gusa ubwo nawe urabyumva ko nuhomba ntawe uzarenganya. Niba rero abakiliya uteganya kugira ari abagendera mu modoka, ni ngombwa gushyira business yawe aho uzi ko hahagarara imodoka zitwara abo bakiliya. Ni ngombwa kwiringira kandi ko hari imyanya ya parking ihagije.

    Niba rero uteganya gukorera ahantu hari abandi banya-business nko ku mangazini cyangwa mu isoko, ni ngombwa kureba niba aho business yawe izajya hegeranye n'aho abakora business imeze nk'iyawe cyangwa abo musangiye abakiliya bari. Ibyo bituma umenya uburyo uzabyitwaramo ngo ugere ku ntego yawe hatajemo ukubangamirana. Ntuzakangwe kandi no kwegerana n'abo mucuranwa abakiliya (competitors) kuko ushobora kubyungukiramo mugihe uzaba ubarusha imikorere myiza.

    Ugomba no kumenya kandi ko nta mategeko yihariye azagira ingaruka kuri business yawe ari muri ako gace ushaka gukoreramo. Aha ni uho umenya ibijyanye n'urusaku, n'ibyapa byemewe muri ako gace ushaka gukoreramo.

  • Iga ku ho uzakura amikoro

    Nyuma yo kubyandika muri business plan yawe, ikiba gitahiwe ni ugutangira kureba uburyo kubona amikoro azagufasha muri business yawe bizagushobokera. Aho ni hahandi witabaza za banki cyangwa se za cooperative zigurizanya. Ibi ugomba kandi kubikora wiringiye ko uzashobora kuzuza ibyo izo banki zisaba. Baza kandi unagereranye inyungu uzakura kuri buri program yo kuguriza ishoboka.

  • Menya ibyo usabwa nk'umukoresha

    Umukoresha burya ni umunt ufite inshingano zitoroshye zijyanye na business. Rero nkawe nk'umukoresha ntushinzwe gusa business ahubwo unashinzwe abakozi bawe. Teganya rero uburyo uzajya ubabona (hiring), uko uzabashakira ubwishingizi, ubwiteganyirize ndetse n'ibindi leta iteganya umukoresha agomba gukurikiza.

  • Menya amategeko yose ya leta arebana na business ushaka gutangiza

    Aha ni ho utangira kureba uko uzajya wuzuza ibisabwa na leta y'agace uzajya ukoreramo. Ni ho umenya imisoro usabwa kuzajya utanga. Uretse iby'imisoro kandi, ugomba no kubaza ibijyanye n'amategeko agenga business ushaka gutangira. Ibi ntuzabikore wifashishije inshuti zawe gusa, ahubwo uzifashishije abanyamategeko babizobereyemo.

  • Shaka kandi unandikishe izina rya business yawe

    Izina ryawe rigomba kuba ryarandikishijwe kugirango ube wemerewe gukora byemewe n'amategeko. Mbere yo kuryandikisha, ni ngombwa guhitamo izina ryawe witonze.
    Izina ni ikintu cy'igenzi cyane kuko ari ryo business. Uzirinde gushaka izina rikomerera abantu kwibuka. Hari abantu bashaka ko izina rya business yabo rijyana n'ibyo bakora maze bagahitamo izina rirerire. Ibi birutwa no guhitamo izina rigufi ridafite icyo rihuriyeho n'icyo uteganya gukora muri business yawe.

    Ugomba kwibuka ko kandi izina rya business yawe ridahinduka. Niba ufite business yitwa Chez Mwiza, ntabwo ari kimwe no kuvuga ngo Kwa Mwiza kuko ayo yombi ari amazina atandukanye. Urundi rugero ni nk'iyo ufite business yitwa Kigali Home Equipments. Ntabwo ari kimwe na KIHOE (impine yayo). Ni ukuvuga ugomba guhitamo izina rimwe, rihoraho, maze ukarigumana kandi akaba ari na ryo abakiliya bamenya.

    Mu bwo kandi ugomba guteganya, ni ugushaka izina rya kabiri (cyangwa se rya gatatu cyangwa rya...) ushobora gufata usanzwe izina wateganyije ryanze kwandikishwa cyangwa se uvumbuye ko ryafashwe.

  • Shakira business yawe nimero y'imisoro (TIN)

    Ibi na byo ni ibisabwa na leta. Ugomba kubikora byanga bikunze, naho ubundi ushobora kwisanga muri gereza uzira kutishyura imisoro ya leta. Imisoro ya leta ni ngombwa rero nubwo abantu benshi bayijujutira. Niyo iteza imbere igihugu kandi ni yo ikoreshwa mu kurinda uburenganzira bw'abagituye. Ni ngombwa rero kwishyura iyo misoro.

  • Shaka n'bindi byangombwa leta isaba mbere yo gutangira business

    Hari igihe ibyo twavuze haruguru leta isaba umuntu ushaka gutangira business biba ati ibyo byonyine bisabwa. Kugirango wizere ko ibyo usabwa byose ubyujuje, shaka inzobere mu by'amategeko maze ikubwire ko hari ibyo ugikeneye kuzuza. Wibuke ko utagomba kwiringira ibyo inshuti yawe yakubwiye kuko iba atari inzobere; shaka inzobere zikwizeze ko wujuje ibyangombwa.

  • Funguza compte ya bank ya business yawe

    Iki ni ingenzi kuko igihe cyo kubika mu ihembe cyararenze. Ibi ntibizakurinda gusa kwibwa amafaranga igiye uyibitseho ahubwo bizanakorohereza mu kandi kazi ukora. Ibi nti nka kwa kundi umuntu azajya aba akeneye kukwishyura, maze agakoresha compte yawe.

Hari n'ibindi bintu bitwavuzwe kuri uru rutonde byakugirira akamaro nk'umutangizi wa business. Ni ngombwa rero ko ukora 'ubushakashatsi" bwawe wifashishize isoko z'amakuru zitandukanye kugirango ugire n'ubundi bumenyi bwisumbuyeho cyangwa butsindagira ubwo ukuye aha. Ibi byose ugomba kubiha umwanya uhagije kuko iyo utabikoze bitewe n'uko ubona ko utabibonera umwanya, ibyiza ni uko waba uretse gutangiza business yawe ukazategereza igihe uzawubonera kuko kubitaruka bitatuma hari icyo ugeraho kirambye.
Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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