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UMU PAPA W’UMUGORE KU NTEBE YA VATICANI !

vatican flagIyo urebye mu mateka yo hambere usanga hari inyandiko nyinshi zivuga ko ngo hari umugore wigeze kwiyoberanyamo umugabo akagirwa umu Papa. Uyu akaba yitwa Jeanne. Ese ibi byabayeho koko ?

UKO IYI NKURU YADUTSE

Mu gihe cya Moyen Age hadutse inkuru y’amayobera muri Kiliziya gatolika, ahavugwaga inkuru y’umupapa w’umugore cyangwa se papakazi, ngo izo nkuru zagaragaye mu nyandiko za cyera, ndetse no ku bishushanyo by’icyo gihe.

N’ubwo inkuru zivuga iby’uyu mupapakazi zanditswe cyane n’abihayimana bo mu idini gatolika, iryo dini ryo rihakana ko uwo mupapa yabayeho.

Inkuru ya 1 igaragara mu gitabo Chronica universalis cya Jean de Mailly, uwihayimana w’umudominikani, wabaga muri couvent y’i Meyence, cyanditswe ahagana mu 1255. Inkuru ikwirakwira gutyo hirya no hino. Ahagana mu 1260, indi nkuru yanditswe na Étienne de Bourbon, nawe wari uwihayimana w’umudominikani wanaturukaga mu ntara imwe kandi na Jean de Mailly, mu gitabo yise Traité des divers matériaux de la prédication. Hanyuma y’ibyo byombi icyaciye agahigo kigakundwa cyane ni igitabo cyanditswe na Martin Polonus, nawe kandi wari umudominikani mu gitabo yise Chronicron pontificum et imperatum, (mu Kinyarwanda inkuru z’abapapa n’abami), ahagana mu 1280.

Uku niko Martin Polonus abivuga : “Nyuma ya papa Leo IV, Jenne umwongereza (Anglicus),wavukiye i Meyence, mu Budage, yategetse imyaka 2, amezi 5 n’iminsi 4. Hashize igihe kingana n’ukwezi nta Papa uriho mbere y’uko Papakazi Jenne ajyaho. Uyu Jenne ngo ni umukobwa wari umuhanga cyane. Nyuma yo kwiga imyaka 3 i Rome, yagize abakunzi benshi mu banyeshuli n’abamwumvaga. Yaje gutorerwa ubu papa mu buryo butazwi.

Mu gihe yari papa yaje gukundana n’umwe mu bo bakoranaga amutera inda. Mu kutamenya igihe azabyarira, ubwo yari mu muhanda ava ku rusengero rwa mutagatifu Petero agana i Lateran, yafashwe n’ibise, hagati ya Coliseum na kiliziya yitiriwe Mutagatifu Clement mu ihuriro ry’imihanda. Bivugwa ko yapfiriye aho kandi niho yahambwe.”

Iyi nkuru yanditsweho n’abanditsi batandukanye : Bavuga ko ngo Papa w’umugore yavukiye mu budage, i Meyence akomokaga ku babyeyi b’aba-missionaire b’ Abongereza. Abo bongerereza ngo bageze muri ako gace ubwo bagendaga babwiriza ubutumwa bwa Kristo.

Mu kwikiza imbogamizi igitsinagore cyari gifite icyo gihe cyo guhezwa, papakazi Jeanne yiyoberanijemo umuhungu. Ku myaka 12 yajyanywe yambaye imyenda y’abahungu mu ishuli ry’I Athens ajyanwa n’umugabo wari uwihaye Imana, izindi nyandiko zivuga ko yari nk’umwarimu we ndetse izindi zikavuga ko ngo yakurikiye umukunzi we nawe wari agiye kwiga muri iryo shuli.

Mu kwihisha mu myenda y’abanyeshuli b’abihayimana akaba yarabizamukiyemo, amenya ama-science atandukanye nk’uko Martin Polonus yabyanditse. Inyandiko zimwe zivuga ko nyuma y’urupfu rw’umukunzi we yagiye i Rome, aho ubwenge bwe mu byanditswe byera bwatumye atorerwa kuba papa ku izina rya Pope John Anglicus. Martin Polonus yanditse ko yategetse mu gihe abagore batagiraga ijambo mu madini ya gikristo kuva 855 kugeza 858. Ikindi kivugwa kandi ni uko ngo izina rye bwite ryari Agnes nk’uko bamwe babivuga, abandi bamuhamagaragara Gilberta na Margarita. Hashize imyaka myinshi apfuye nibwo batangiye kumuhamagara Jeanne, rituruka kuri Jean ryo ryitwa umuhungu.

Gusa muri ayo mazina yose nta na rimwe ryigeze rigaragara mu gitabo cya Vatican kigaragaza urutonde rw’amazina y’aba-papa bemewe. Idini gatolika ntiryigeze ryemera ukubaho k’uwo mupapakazi kuko ryemera ko ariwo murongo rigenderaho gutora papa aho kuba papakazi kuva kuri mutagatifu Petro.

Inyandiko zo mu gihe cya Moyen Age zivuga ko Vatican yarwanyije cyane ko inkuru za papakazi Jeanne zivugwa. Abapapa benshi kandi bakaba baranahakanye umuhanda bivugwa ariwo Jeanne yabyariyemo. Bivugwa ko ngo abapapa bafata uwo muhanda nk’inzira y’isoni. Nyuma Vatican yatangaje ko aho hantu hari hato cyane ku buryo hatakorwa umutambagiro cyangwa se défilé.

Mu gitabo cye cyo mu 1999, The Legend of Pope Joan, mu Kinyarwanda umugani wa papa Jeanne, umwanditsi w’Umwongereza Peter Stanford ubwo yasuraga Vatican anakora iperereza ku ntebe yitirirwa icyo bita ishyano rya Jeanne, yanditse ko ngo iyi ntebe yashyizweho nyuma y’ayo mahano ya Jeanne. Iyo ntebe ngo ikaba ikoze mu giti, ifite ikicaro kiriho umwobo, bivugwa ko ngo yakoreshejwe kugeza mu kinyajana cya 16. Igakoreshwa mu birori byo kwimika Papa. nk’uko inyandiko zo muri Moyen Age zibivuga ngo Papa ugiye kujyaho wese yagombaga kuyicaraho mu gihe habaga hari uwihayimana wabaga ari kugenzura ari munsi yayo. Hashiraga akanya wa mugenzuzi akunamuka, agakurayo ukuboko kwe, agatangaza ku mugaragaro ati : umukandida wacu ni umugabo : Bivugwa ko ngo kubera ko yakojeje isoni Vatican, Papa wamukurikiye yahise ashyiraho urutonde rw’abapapa mu gitabo bise Liber Pontificalis, maze we akurwamo kugira ngo amateka ye azibagirane azanasibangane.

Izo nkuru zivuga ko hari ikirundo cy’amabuye aho byabereye, hakaba kandi igishushanyo cyangwa ikibumbano cy’umugore n’umwana — ngo bihagarariye uwo mupapakazi n’umwana we. Bivugwa ko Papa Pius V mu kinyejana cya 16 ariwe wasabye ko byakurwaho. Abizera iyi nkuru batanga ibintu bitandukanye bavuga ko ukuri kwabo ariko gushingiyeho. Kuva icyo gihe abapapa batangiye kujya bicazwa mu ntebe ifite umwobo – kugira ngo aba-cardinal bagenzure niba uwo mupapa afite igitsina gabo. Ibi ngo byakozwe kugeza mu kinyejana cya 16.

Donna Cross, umwanditsi wamaze imyaka 7 akora ubushakashatsi yerekana ko hari ibimenyetso, avuga ko inyandiko zirenga 500 zivuga ukubaho kwe. Cross avuga ko icya mbere abantu bagomba kumenya ari uko imyenda bambaraga yari amakanzu yaba umuhungu cyangwa umukobwa. Kandi mu kinyajana cya 9, nta byo gukaraba byabagaho ngo abe yakuramo imyenda bamubone. Nta muntu wakarabaga. Bozaga intoki, isura, ibirenge, ariko ntibigeraga boga umubiri wose. Ikindi kandi ni uko abihayimana basabwaga kuba bogoshe no kugira umubiri muto mu gihagararo yaba umuhungu cg umukobwa. Donna Cross we yemera ko Joan yabayeho, akavuga ati ahari uwo mwotsi w’amateka, hagomba kuba hari inzu ishya, ati byanze bikunze hagomba kuba hari ikintu cyabaye.

Umusizi Giovanni Boccaccio, wo mu gihe cya Renaissance, uzwi cyane ku nyandiko ze "The Decameron," yanditse kandi igitabo ku bagore "100 bazwi cyane." Ku mwanya wa 51 hari papa Jeanne. Ngo abacuruzi b’ibitabo b’i Rome bagira kandi amakarita 78 yakoreshwaga mu kwerekana inzagihe y’umuntu, yitwa ngo ikarita y’ubumenyi buhishwe, izo karita zikaba zaragaragayeho papa w’umugore. Mu majyaruguru ya Siena, Italy, imbere muri cathedral hari inyandiko zerekana abapapa 170 batari batondetse neza, mbese mu kavuyo. Mu kinyajana cya 17, Cardinal Baronuis, umubitsi w’ibitabo wa Vatican, yanditse ko isura 1 muri izo yari iy’umugore Joan papakazi.

Baronius akomeza yandika ko ngo papa wariho icyo gihe yaciye iteka ko icyo gishushyanyo cyasenywa, ariko Mgr umwe muri ako gace ngo yanze ko iyo shusho nziza yashyirwa mu mwanda. Ngo nyuma baje kuyiha isura y’umugabo maze yandikwaho hejuru papa Zacharia." Bernini, umwe mu bahanga mu gushushanya bo mu kinyajana cya 17 mu bishushanyo bye hagaragara amashusho y’abagore 8 bambaye amakamba ya papa, ayo mashusho yombi agasa n’avuga inkuru z’umugore wabyaraga n’umwana wavukaga. Ibi kandi bigasa n’inkuru zavugwaga mu gihe cya Moyen Age ko ngo : hashize imyaka 2 n’igice ayobora, papa Joan yari hagati mu murongo w’aba-cardinal hafi km 2.5 bagana ku kilizia ya Lateran i Rome, ako kanya mu ihuriro ry’imihanda, yafashwe n’ibise mu nda ye, nk’uko iyo nkuru ibivuga, ngo maze haba akataraboneka nako akatari karabonetse papa arabyara.

Mu myaka yakurikiyeho, aho hantu bahise Vicus Papissa – bivuga umuhanda wa papa w’umugore naho mu binyejana byakurikiyeho abapapa bakaba barahitagamo guca izindi nzira kugira ngo badaca muri uwo muhanda w’isoni kuri Vatican.

KILIZIYA NA BAMWE MU BASHAKASHATSI BARABIHAKANA

Kiliziya ndetse na bamwe mu bashakashatsi bari ku ruhande rwa Vatican bo bahakana ukubaho kwa papakazi Joan, bakavuga ko ngo ari umugani gusa wahimbwe.

Valerie Hotchkiss, umwarimu w’amateka yo mu gihe cya Moyen Age muri kaminuza y’epfo y’aba-Methodiste muri Texas,USA, avuga ko inkuru ya papa Joan yongewe ku nyandiko za Martin Polonus nyuma y’urupfu rwe. Ngo nko mu myaka ya 1280 na 1290." Hotchkiss agakomeza avuga ko ngo abihayimana bo muri icyo gihe bandikaga gusa bakoporora amakosa bakayagira inyandiko z’amateka. Agakomeza avuga ko ngo bagendaga bayaherekanya gutyo, buri wese ayandika uko yishakiye.

Charles Burns, wahoze ari umukuru w’ububiko bw’ibitabo by’amabanga ya Vatican avuga ko iyi nkuru yashajije abantu bo muri Moyen Age nk’uko iri gusaza ab’iki gihe. Burns akavuga ko ngo nta gihamya nta n’inyandiko zigaragara mu mabanga ya Vatican bigaragaza ukubaho kwa papa Joan, ngo nta n’uwihayimana witwaga papa John Anglicus. Ikindi kibazo kibaho ngo ni igihe kinini cyane kiri hagati y’igihe kubaho kwe byatangiye kuvugwa n’igihe yategekeye. Hagati y’igihe byatangiye kuvugwa mu kinyejana cya 13 n’igihe kivugwa ko aribwo yategeti hari imyaka igera kuri 400. Ngo rero ibyo bikaba bisa n’aho ubu bavuga ngo Ubwongereza bwategetswe n’umwamikazi Elizabeth mu 1600.

Ariko nanone abahakana ukubaho kwa papa Joan bemera ko inkuru ye ifungura amadirishya ku mateka y’abagore mu idni gatolika. Abashakashatsi benshi bavuga ko habaye iyicwa ry’abagore muri icyo gihe, abagore benshi bakaba baricwaga bahowe imyizerere yabo bagirwa abatagatifu.

Mutagatifu Eugenia, urugero ngo nawe yabaye uwihayimaga wiyoberanijemo umuhungu, ajyanwa kandi mu rukiko aregwa ibyaha byo kubyara umuhungu ku mugore w’aho mu gace yari atuyemo, yaje gukurwaho icyo cyaha cyo gutera inda amaze kwerekana amabere ye mu ruhame, maze bemera koko ko umugore atatera undi inda. Hotchkiss akomeza avuga ko hari abagore barenga 30 bose biyoberanijemo abagabo bakaba abihayimana ku mpanvu zitandukanye bakaba kandi baragiye baba abantu batandukanye. Ikindi abari ku ruhande rwa kilizia gatolika bavuga ni uko ngo izi nkuru zavuzwe cyane nyuma y’aho bamwe batangiye kwigumura kuri iryo dini batangira gushinga ayabo, ngo icyo gihe kandi ni nabwo noneho idini gatolika ryatangiye kwanga ko uwo mupapakazi yabayeho koko, ngo icyo gihe byatewe n’uko abaporoso basaga nk’aho baserereza idini gatolika.

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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